Calluses are composed of the same material as corns. Calluses, however, develop on the ball or heel of the foot. The skin on the sole of the foot is ordinarily about 40 times thicker than the skin anywhere else on the body, but a callus can even be twice as thick. A protective callus layer naturally develops to guard against excessive pressure and chafing as people get older and the padding of fat on the bottom of the foot thins out. If calluses get too big or too hard, they may pull and tear the underlying skin.
If shoes do require breaking-in, moleskin pads should be placed next to areas on the skin where friction will occur. Shoes purchased for exercise should be specifically designed for a person's preferred sport. The heel area should be strong and supportive (but not too stiff) and the front of the shoe flexible. As soon as the heels show noticeable wear, the shoes or heels should be replaced. If a person insists on wearing high-heeled shoes, the heel should be wedge-shaped. (Even in these cases, the heel height should not be extreme.) People should avoid extreme variation between exercise footwear, street, and dress shoes. Shoes should be changed during the day.
General Guidelines. Nonsurgical treatments for heel pain are effective in 90% of patients. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) suggests trying shoe inserts, medications, and stretching first. One study found that 95% of women who used an insert and did simple exercises that stretched their Achilles tendon and plantar fascia experienced improvement after eight weeks. If these methods fail, then the patient may need prescription heel orthotics and extended physical therapy. Heel surgery to relieve pain may be performed for heel spurs, plantar fasciitis, bursitis, or neuroma. Surgery is not recommended until nonsurgical methods have failed for at least six months and preferably 12 months.
The plantar fascia supports the bones of the heels and maintains the arch of the heel. The Bunions is a bony projection that leads away from the plantar fascia into the surrounding tissues of the body. More often than not, heel spurs and plantar fasciitis together cause sharp pain in the foot. The severe foot pain experienced by you, when you put your weight on your foot, while taking first step, is because of the heel spur poking into the surrounding living mass of tissues, nerves, tendons and muscles. Your doctor may advise you to take an X-ray of the feet to detect the heel spur.
The symptoms of heel spurs are nearly identical to those for plantar fasciitis (above). There is pain in the front of the heel and possibly in the arch. The pain probably seems particularly acute when taking your first steps of the day or walking after a long period of sitting down. When you have a heel spur, unlike with plantar fasciitis, you will feel pain when you press the front of the heel, at the intersection of the heel and the arch, pressing up and backward toward the heel. This is where the heel spur has formed - it's a pointy extension of the heel bone.
Sport activities contribute significantly to side of foot pain with athletics and gymnastics being top of the list. There are two distinctive fractures than can cause intense side of foot pain and these are March fractures and Stress fractures. March fractures result from undertaking vigorous physical activity without the correct warm up procedures or when a person undertakes extreme exercise outside of their normal everyday activities. Stress fractures normally result from repetitive and excessive strain over a given period of time. From the onset of any side of foot pain , first treatment is to simply remember RICE. This stands for rest, ice, compression and elevation.
A hot and cold foot treatment can help in easing sudden foot pain To do this, fill a bucket with hot water and another bucket with cold water. Soak your feet in the cold water for a few minutes and then soak them in hot water. Alternate between hot and cold water soaks for a few times and finish with a cold water soak. The hot water dilates the blood vessels in your feet and the cold water constricts it. This compress will help in boosting the blood circulation, giving you relief from foot pain.